Pathophysiology is one of the oldest institutes of the Medical
Faculty of P.J.Šafarik University and is tightly associated
with the formation of the Faculty in 1949 and its further
dynamic evolvement since the early 50-ties of the 20th century
until today. Being equipped with strong and enthusiastic
staffing with the high level of educational expertise
including expert lecturing, animal modeling in practical
lessons and scientific - research work of the european format
Department of Pathophysiology at the Medical Faculty in Kosice
significantly contributed to the evolvement of Human
Physiology and Pathophysiology as educational and scientific
disciplines in former Czechoslovakia and in Slovakia.
beginning Department of Pathophysiology provided
organizational support and content of pregraduate subject Pathological
Physiology for General Medicine and Dentistry. Within the
European tradition Pathophysiology is the essential part of
pre-clinical medical education, providing a systematic review
of the scientific basis for the emergence and formation of the
disease, symptoms (Nosology), contemporary overview of the
causes and risk factors (etiology) of human diseases,
mechanisms of progression and development of the clinical
expressions (pathogenesis) to their pharmacological influence.
Department became widely recognized by quality if lectures and
high impact of the handbooks (Prof. Korec, Doc. Varga, Doc. Šofrankova).
Since the second half of the 90s, based on experiences from
abroad, the Department pioneered an unique implementation of
the cellular and molecular pathogenesis in the curriculum of
undergraduate education (Prof. Racz, Doc. Beňačka)
in a compulsory subject Molecular basis of pathological
processes persisting until now as Molecular
pathophysiology including original textbooks Basics of
of scientific research at the Department of Pathophysiology
were defined already in the 50s and further elaborated in the
60-ies of 20th century and included the experimental modeling
of pathogenesis and treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM) in
rats (Prof. Korec) and the pioneering research of protective
reflexes of the upper respiratory airways (UAW) in
experimental animals (Prof. Korpáš, Prof. Tomori). Both
these research areas acclaimed european and world-wide
interest and fame. Above research directions continued in 70s,
80s and 90s being focused on the biochemical nature and
chronic complications of DM including oxidative damage and
antioxidant protection in humans (Doc. Rácz) and the study
of the mechanisms of hypoxic cardiorespiratory failure and
resuscitation effects of the UAW reflexes in animal models
(Prof. Tomori, Doc. Beňačka, Prof. Donič). The
later research topic continued and focused on the respiratory
arrhythmias upon cardiorespiraotry failure and the study of
cardiac and vegetative functions modified by reflexes from
branchiogenic area in humans (Doc. Beňačka) in the
past decade. At this time, further research topic evolved -
multigenerational studies of the chronic lifetime exposure to
sub-toxic doses of heavy metals (cadmium, mercury, lead) to
reproductive and other physiological parameters and
corresponding mechanism of oxidative stress in rats (Prof. Nišiar,
Dr. Lovásová). Participation of the Department in research
projects co-funded by EU in recent years has allowed formation
of the Laboratory of Applied Physiology which is oriented on
electrophysiological methods of research in humans (Doc. Beňačka.
situalted in Section II, 8th floor of the building of Medical
Faculty at SNP Ave 1.. Practical lesson room is localized at
1st floor on the corridor linking entranmce hall of the
faculty with Polyclinics and Hospital. Nearby the entrance
into practical lesson room there is a box with printed
departmental announcements and shedules. Practical lessons in
english language are done in different lecture rooms.
Roman Doc., MUDr., CSc., mim.prof.
Silvia - sekretariát
Marek, MUDr., PhD.
Jaroslava, MVDr., PhD.
Eva, MVDr., PhD.
Oliver, Doc., MUDr., CSc. mim.prof
Eva, MUDr., PhD.
Lenka, MUDr., PhD.
History of the Department of Pathological Physiology
The Department of
Pathological Physiology and Experimental Pathology in Košice
began its activities as one of the first institutions of the
Faculty of Medicine of Comenius University in Košice in
October 1948, later a part of P.J. Šafarik University. The
institute was established and headed for 20 years (1949 to
1970) by young scientist MUDr. Rudolf Korec who arrived
into Kosice from the Department of Biochemistry in Medical
faculty UK, Bratislava and finished here in Košice a
habilitation (1956), inauguration (1962) and gained DrSc.
grade (1969). He established metabolic and diabetes research
in the Department (monograph Metabolism 1955) which was later
in 70ties and 80ties continues by his followers. In late
50-ties his co-workers MUDr. I. Ivančo, CSc. MUDr. J.
Korpas and MUDr. Z. Tomori (both latter Assoc. prof. in 1965
and 1968) started conjointly respirology research which turned
into their domain afterwards. Prof. Korec, together with his
colleagues started very valuable pedagogical activity highly
awarded in former Czechoslovakia. Prof. MUDr. R. Korec, DrSc.
published one of the first Slovak textbooks of pathophysiology
(Korec R.: Pathological Physiology, 1964; in Slovak).
Fruitful results of his studies in the experimental
diabetology were presented in dozens international forums over
48 countries and resulted in total 236 scientific works
published in Slovak and international prints. Many of the
contacts and experiences he provided to his colleagues. The
principal data and methodological insights were summarized in
an outstanding monograph Experimental diabetes mellitus in
the rat (1967). In the 1970s and 1980s despite
difficulties and low financial support, prof. Korec carried
out successful transplants of the isolated Langerhans islands
in Europe into a renal capsule. Both, prof. MUDr.J. Korpáš,
DrSc. and prof. MUDr. Z. Tomori, DrSc. continued in the field
of respiratory reflexes in Medical faculty in Martin. The most
important results from their research were summarized in the
renowned monograph Korpáš. J., Tomori, Z.: Cough and
Other Respiratory Reflexes (1978). They became the heads
of the Institutes of Physiology and Pathological Physiology,
respectively, at the Jessenius Faculty of Commenius University
in Martin. Prof. MUDr. I. Ivančo, CSc. became the head of
the Institute of Physiology in Medical faculty of P. J. Šafárik
Under the lead of Doc.
MUDr. J. Varga, CSc. (1970-1986) the department was
focusing on methodology of teaching and education progress.
There are prepared several scripta and manuals for animal
practical exercises implementing audio-visual materials (MUDr.
P. Dombrovský, MVDr. M. Riemerová). There was published the
textbook of aetiology and pathogenesis (Varga, J., Oblyvač,
J.: General Pathophysiology, 1979, in Slovak ) first of
the twin books including Special Pathophysiology from
Bratislava colleagues. The research activities were focused on
studies of interactions between endo- & exo-secretion of
the pancreas (doc. MUDr. A. Šofranková, CSc.) and clinical
biochemistry of diabetes and chronic complications including
glycation of proteins (doc. MUDr. O. Rácz, CSc.). The results
were presented in various conferences and publications
including the monograph Rácz, O. et al.: Glycohaemoglobin,
Glycation of Proteins and Diabetes Mellitus (1989, in Slovak).
From 1986 to 1990
the Department was headed by prof. MUDr. Zoltán Tomori,
DrSc., who brought back certain topics of respiratory
research from Jessenius Medical faculty in Martin. The
Department became more active in grant applications, the
projects with international cooperation were initiated (prof.
Tomori) and process of computerization and digitalization data
acquisition and processing began (1988) (Ing. J. Čalfa,
M. Kurpas). There were several research topics under
investigation, e.g. the mechanisms of cardiorespiratory
hypoxic failure (MUDr. R. Tkáčová, CSc.),
pressure-evoked reflexes in UAW and their resuscitation
potency (MUDr. V. Donič), cerebral electrophysiology of
hypoxic/ischemic apnoea (MUDr. M. Jurčo, MUDr. Beňačka)
and anoxia-induced disorders of respiratory rhythm and
reversal by reflexes from nasopharynx and trigeminal region in
animal models (MUDr. R. Beňačka). There were several
fruitful long-time research stays and visits abroad
(1991-1993; Germany, USA).
The head of the
institute from 1990 to 1992 was Doc. MUDr. A. Šofranková,
CSc., who also served as Vice-Rector of P.J. Šafarik
University. Department continued in educational tradition. The
publication of Varga, J., Šofranková, A.:
Pathophysiological Atlas (1991, in Slovak) was issued.
Prof. Korec summarized the results of previous years of
experimental research in Diabetes in the monograph Korec,
R. : Experimental and Spontaneous Diabetes Mellitus in the Rat
and Mouse (1991). The emphasis is given on improvement of
teaching process. Within the framework of UPJŠ, the
Department was among the first (1992) to connect to the
international academic computer network EARN. In 1990-1995,
for those times unique computed based technologies were
implemented in the research: digital acquisition and computer–assisted
evaluation of pneumotachographic data (MUDr. V. Donič,
CSc, M. Kurpas), spectral analysis of EMG and EEG and
continuous sequential evaluation of native and evoked brain
activities during experimental hypoxia and ischemia in vivo
(MUDr. R. Beňačka, CSc., RNDr. Gálik, CSc. (NFÚ
The position of the
head of the Institute of pathological physiology 1992 to 2016
was held by Doc. MUDr. Oliver Rácz, CSc., who also
served as vice rector of P.J. Šafárik University from 1997
to 2001. In education process, the most significant change was
teaching of foreign students in English language (1995/1996).
It continues until these days. Two volume scripta from General
pathophysiology were prepared in English (Rácz et al.:
Compendium of General Pathological Physiology I, II; 1995)
and later translated into Slovak (Rácz, O. et al.: General
pathological physiology, 1996). In the 90s, the institute
continues in the diabetology research (prof. Korec, Doc. MVDr.
F. Ništiar, CSc.) and the study of oxidative damage and
total antioxidant protection (Doc. Rácz). Since the mid-90s,
legislative changes have reduced practical teaching on animal
models in vivo. It was gradually being replaced by seminars
and tutorials using audio-visual techniques. In 1997/1998 the
Dept. introduced teaching of new subject Pathobiochemistry
(Doc. Rácz), which later expanded into molecular aspects of
pathogenesis (Dr. Beňačka). New compulsory subject
was introduced (Molecular fundamentals of pathological
processes) with textbooks (2002) having been published later (Beňačka
et al. & Ništiar et al.: Fundamentals of Molecular
Medicine (2004, 2005; in Slovak).
thanks to experience with experimental modelling of apnoeic
states and established international cooperation (ERS) and
successful funding from TEMPUS grant (1995-1998; Tomori et
al.) the research expanded towards the human studies in sleep
apnea (prof. Tomori, Dr. Donič and Dr. Beňačka).
In Košice the first of tree Sleep Laboratory in Slovakia was
established and monograph from the topic was issued (Tomori,
Z. et al. : Fundamentals of Sleep Medicine (1999)). In
2003, as prof. Tomori and Doc. Donič left the Department
the Sleep Medicine topics and Sleep laboratory were
transferred to the Depart. of Medical Physiology. Since 2004,
Department started the research of chronic exposure to
subtoxic doses of heavy metals in animal models (prof. Nišiar,
MVDr. Lovásová, PhD and at the end of the decade MVDr. J.
Nováková, PhD, Ing. Cimboláková, PhD). The study of
oxidative damage and antioxidants continued (Dr. Lovásová)
and was implanted in ischaemic heart studies (MUDr. Sedláková,
PhD). In 2003-2012, the Department continued in the research
on trigemino-vagal reflexes on autonomic responses,
cardio-respiratory reactivity under the physical stress (Doc.
Beňačka) and as a tool for reversal of
supraventricular arrhythmias (Doc. Beňačka, Dr. Sedlákova).
The teaching of pathophysiology in non – medical programmes
started (Nursery, Physiotherapy, Public health). Brief
textbook for these programmes was prepared, too (Rácz, O.
et al.: Fundamentals of pathological physiology (2006). In
2007, after a successful accreditation, the Commission of
Normal and pathological physiology for PhD thesis was
established and started the work (Prof. Ništiar, guarantor;
Doc. Beňačka, chairman).
In 2009, Doc. Beňačka
brought new design and structure to the faculty scientific
medical journal Folia Medica Cassoviensia and became the chief
editor. Journal also started to publish yearly supplements of
International conferences for young researchers organized by
Medical faculty in Košice. In 2010, the Department hosts 18.
Conference of Czech and Slovak pathophysiologists (Doc. Beňačka
et al.) with CD-publication Pathophysiology 2010. Within the
framework of the CEEMP project in farme of by structural funds
of the EU (2010-2014) Laboratory of Applied Physiology was
established (Doc. Beňačka et al.).
Since 2016 the
department is headed by Doc. MUDr. Roman Beňačka,
CSc. There were introduced many changes in teaching
process: e.g. demonstration practices using videopresentations
and simulators, unification of the programmes and the content
of subjects for Slovak and English speaking students,
expansion of teaching curriculum by new subjects - Clinical
pathophysiology and Molecular pathophysiology. New and modern
systems of credit testing and examination were implemented too.
Since 2015, the Department did cooperation in monitoring of
cerebral hypoxia using non-invasive techniques (NIRS, aEEG)
(MUDr. Rusnáková, PhD Doc. Beňačka) with the
Department of Neonatology (MUDr. Krcho, PhD). Results were
presented in the World Pathophysiology Congress in Bratislava.
Diabetes research continued in several topics including the
evaluation of chronic complications of diabetes mellitus, such
as gastroparesis and neuropathy (MUDr. L. Šalamonová-Blichová,
PhD; Doc. Rácz) and the effect of diabetes on metabolism
during pregnancy incl. gestosis (MUDr. M. Brenišin, PhD, Doc
regularly and actively participates in programme committee and
lectures (Doc. Rácz, Doc. Beňačka) in Annual
Scientific Meetings co-organized by Slovakian diabetes society
and dedicated to memory and scientific legacy of prof. Korec
since 2004. Department also more tightly cooperates (Mgr. D.
Szabóová) with the Institute of Experimental Medicine (RNDr.
Z. Hertelyová) on issues from metabolomics, proteomics and
lipidomics. In 2020 first of series of full-color illustrated
textbooks was prepared and published for general medicine
students (Beňačka, R. (Ed): General
pathophysiology (2021, in Slovak) and by fall of 2021,
second textbook Beňačka, R. et al. Pathophysiology
for medical professionals (2022, in Slovak) was uploaded
Doc. MUDr. Roman Beňačka, CSc.